ATP Production

  • Aerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule produces
    • 32 net ATP via malate-aspartate shuttle (heart and liver)
    • 30 net ATP via glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle (muscle)
  • Anaerobic glycolysis produces only 2 net ATP per glucose molecule.
  • ATP hydrolysis can be coupled to energetically unfavorable reactions.
  • Arsenic causes glycolysis to produce zero net ATP.

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