Glycogen Regulation by Insulin and Glucagon/Epinephrine

Glycogen is broken down by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, which is regulated through phosphorylation (active state) and dephosphorylation (inactive state). Phosphorylase kinase (PK) is the enzyme responsible for the phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase whereas phosphoprotein phosphatase catalyzes its dephosphorylatlon.

PK is regulated differently in liver than in muscles. Glycogen stored in the liver is used to maintain blood glucose levels during the fasting state, whereas glycogen in the muscles is used to provide energy for muscle contraction.

  • In the liver, PK is activated primarily through the binding of epinephrine and glucagon to GS protein-coupled receptors; which increases cAMP concentrations and causes phosphorylation of PK (via protein kinase A).
  • Skeletal muscle lacks glucagon receptors, but muscle PK can still be phosphorylated in response to an epinephrine-induced increase in cAMP concentrations. However; Increased intracellular calcium is a more powerful activator of muscle PK. Release of sarcoplasmic calcium stores following neuromuscular acetylcholine stimulation allows for synchronization of skeletal muscle contraction and glycogen breakdown, providing the energy necessary for anaerobic muscle contraction.

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