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Universal electron acceptors

  • Nicotinamides (NAD+, NADP+ from vitamin B3) and flavin nucleotides (FAD+ from vitamin B2).
  • NAD+ is generally used in catabolic processes to carry reducing equivalents away as NADH.
  • NADPH is used in anabolic processes (eg, steroid and fatty acid synthesis) as a supply of reducing equivalents.
  • NADPH is a product of the HMP shunt.
  • NADPH is used in:
    • Anabolic processes
    • Respiratory burst
    • Cytochrome P-450 system
    • Glutathione reductas

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