• Vitamins: fat soluble
    • A, D, E, K. Absorption dependent on gut and pancreas. Toxicity more common than for water-soluble vitamins because fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in fat.
    • Malabsorption syndromes with steatorrhea (eg, cystic fibrosis and celiac disease) or mineral oil intake can cause fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies.
  • Vitamins: water soluble
    • B1 (thiamine: TPP)
    • B2 (riboflavin: FAD, FMN)
    • B3 (niacin: NAD+)
    • B5 (pantothenic acid: CoA)
    • B6 (pyridoxine: PLP)
    • B7 (biotin)
    • B9 (folate)
    • B12 (cobalamin)
    • C (ascorbic acid)
  • All wash out easily from body except B12 and B9 (folate). B12 stored in liver for ~ 3–4 years. B9 stored in liver for ~ 3–4 months.
  • B-complex deficiencies often result in dermatitis, glossitis, and diarrhea.
  • Can be coenzymes (eg, ascorbic acid) or precursors to organic cofactors (eg, FAD, NAD+).

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