Vitamin B6

  • Also called pyridoxine.
  • Function
    • Converted to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), a cofactor used in transamination (eg, ALT and AST, glutamate reacts with oxaloacetate to form aspartate and α-ketoglutarate), decarboxylation reactions, glycogen phosphorylase. Synthesis of cystathionine, heme, niacin, histamine, and neurotransmitters including serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, and GABA.
  • Deficiency
    • May be caused by jejunal and ileal pathology/resection
    • Methylmalonic acid buildup leads to impaired myelin synthesis.
    • Homocysteine buildup leads to impaired DNA synthesis, and can also lead to endothelial damage and thrombosis.
    • Convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy (deficiency inducible by isoniazid and oral contraceptives), sideroblastic anemias (due to impaired hemoglobin synthesis [B6 is a cofactor of ALA synthase] and iron excess).
  • See Metabolism (summary)

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