Secreted by macrophages
|Interleukin-1||Causes fever, acute inflammation.
Activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules.
Induces chemokine secretion to recruit WBCs.
Also known as osteoclast-activating factor.
Induces VEGF expression.
IL-1β contributes to cancer cachexia
Activates naïve TH0 lymphocytes to differentiate into Th1 & Th2.
|“Hot T-bone stEAK”:
IL-1: fever (hot).
IL-2: stimulates T cells.
IL-3: stimulates bone marrow.
IL-4: stimulates IgE production.
IL-5: stimulates IgA production.
IL-6: stimulates aKute-phase protein
|Interleukin-12||Induces differentiation of T cells into Th1 cells.
Activates NK cells.
|Interleukin-6||Causes fever and stimulates production of acute phase proteins → ESR
Contributes to cancer cachexia
|Interleukin-8||Major chemotactic factor for neutrophils.||“Clean up on aisle 8.” Neutrophils are recruited by IL-8 to clear infections.|
|Tumor necrosis factor-α||Secreted by macrophages and T-cells
Causes WBC recruitment, vascular leak, fever, acute phase reactions (CRP, fibrinogen).
Increases basal metabolic rate.
|Causes cachexia in malignancy.
Maintains granulomas in TB.
Induces insulin resistance through activation of serine kinases, which phosphorylate serine residues on insulin receptors, inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation.
IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α can mediate fever and sepsis.
Secreted by all T cells
|Interleukin-2||Stimulates growth of helper, cytotoxic, and regulatory T cells, B cells, and NK cells.|
|Interleukin-3||Activated by CD4+ Th cells.
Supports growth and differentiation of bone marrow myeloid stem cells. Functions like GM-CSF.
From Th1 cells, NK Cells
|Interferon-γ||Secreted in response to antigen or IL-12 from macrophages → dimerization of the receptor & activation of Janus kinase 1 & 2 → nuclear signaling via STAT1 & transcription of IFN-gamma-regulated genes → stimulates macrophages to kill phagocytosed pathogens.
Inhibits differentiation of Th2 cells.
Also activates NK cells to kill virus-infected cells.
Stimulates CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells (together with IL-2)
Increases MHC expression and antigen presentation by all cells.
Induces VEGF expression.
From Th2 cells
|Interleukin-4||Induces differentiation of T cells into Th (helper) 2 cells.
Promotes growth of B cells.
Enhances class switching to IgE and IgG.
|Ain’t too proud 2 BEG 4 help.|
|Interleukin-5||Promotes growth and differentiation of B cells and eosinophils. Enhances class switching to IgA.|
|Interleukin-10||Attenuates inflammatory response. Decreases expression of MHC class II and Th1 cytokines (by inhibiting interferon gamma synthesis, leading to decreased Th1 cells). Inhibits activated macrophages and dendritic cells. Also secreted by regulatory T cells.||TGF-β and IL-10 both attenuate the immune response.|
From Treg cells, platelets, macrophages, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts & keratinocytes
|TGF-ß||Decreases T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Involved in tissue regeneration & repair.|