• Induces an active immune response (humoral and/or cellular) to specific pathogens.
Live attenuated vaccine Microorganism loses its pathogenicity but retains capacity for transient growth within inoculated host.

Induces cellular and humoral (anti-body mediated) responses.

MMR and varicella vaccines can be given to HIV ⊕ patients without evidence of immunity if CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3.

Pros: induces strong, often lifelong immunity.

Cons: may revert to virulent form.

Often contraindicated in pregnancy and immunodeficiency.

Adenovirus (nonattenuated, given to military recruits), Polio (sabin)

Varicella (chickenpox) (US)



Yellow fever

Influenza intranasal

Measles-Mumps-Rubella (US)

Rotavirus (US)

“Attention! Please Vaccinate Small, Beautiful Young Infants with MMR Regularly!”

Killed or inactivated vaccine Pathogen is inactivated by heat or chemicals.

Maintaining epitope structure on surface antigens is important for immune response.

Mainly induces a humoral response.

Pros: safer than live vaccines.

Cons: weaker immune response; booster shots usually required.

Rabies, Influenza (injection), Polio (Salk), hepatitis A

SalK = Killed RIP Always

Subunit Includes only the antigens that best stimulate the immune system. Pros: lower chance of adverse reactions.

Cons: expensive, weaker immune response.

HBV (antigen = HBsAg) (US)

HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18), (US)

  • HPV & HBV use virus-like particles that illicit a strong B- and T-cell response but contain no viral genetic material.

Acellular pertussis (aP) (US)

Neisseria meningitidis (various strains) (US)

  • Quadrivalent conjugated capsular polysaccharide (serotypes A, C, Y, W) fused to diphtheroid toxin carrier, which allows polysaccharides to be displayed on the major histocompatibility complex of APCs, stimulates T-cells, provides a stronger, more lasting immune response.
  • Serougroup B capsular polysaccharides (similar to human neural cell adhesion molecules), may stimulate an autoimmune response. Newer versions use recombinant proteins instead of capsular polysaccharides.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (US)

Haemophilus influenzae type b (US)

Toxoid Denatured bacterial toxin with an intact receptor binding site. Stimulates the immune system to make antibodies without potential for causing disease. Pros: protects against the bacterial toxins.

Cons: antitoxin levels decrease with time, may require a booster.

Clostridium tetani (Tetanus toxoid, DTaP)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (protein carrier in conjugated vaccines, allows polysaccharide antigen to be displayed on MHC of APCs.)

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